drip tape irrigation system

Drip Tape Irrigation System

A drip irrigation system is a method of delivering water directly to the roots of plants in a controlled and precise manner. It consists of a network of pipes, tubes, and emitters that distribute water directly to the soil at or near the root zone of plants.

The system operates under low pressure, allowing for efficient water usage and minimal waste. Drip irrigation systems are known for their ability to deliver water directly to the root zone, reducing evaporation and runoff compared to traditional surface irrigation methods. This targeted approach ensures that plants receive the right amount of water, leading to improved growth, yield, and water conservation.

drip tape irrigation system
drip tape irrigation system
drip tape irrigation system
drip tape system
drip tape system
drip tape irrigation system

Irrigation Techniques: Drip Irrigation

Characteristics of Drip Irrigation:

  1. Low Water Volume and Short Watering Period: The flow rate of drip emitters typically ranges from 1.5 to 12 liters per hour, with watering intervals varying depending on the type of fruit tree, usually occurring every 7-15 days.
  2. Localized Soil Moisture: Drip irrigation moistens only the portion of soil near the roots of the crop, preserving soil structure and creating optimal conditions for soil water, heat, air, and nutrient content. This reduces surface evaporation and conserves water.
  3. Low Operating Pressure: The operating pressure of drip emitters is typically between 7 to 10 meters of water head.
  4. Integration with Fertilization: Drip irrigation allows for the precise delivery of fertilizer to the roots at different stages of growth.

Types of Drip Irrigation:

  1. Surface Drip Irrigation: Water is dripped uniformly and slowly onto the soil surface near the crop’s root system through emitters, holes, or drip tapes installed on water pipes.
  2. Subsurface Drip Irrigation: Capillary tubes and drip emitters are buried 20-30 centimeters below the surface, allowing irrigation water to seep out and moisten the soil. This method slows down the aging of capillary tubes and emitters, prevents loss, and facilitates field operations. However, it poses challenges in locating and cleaning clogged emitters.

Components of Drip Irrigation Systems:

A complete drip irrigation system typically consists of four parts: water source, main control hub, pipeline network (water distribution pipeline system), and emitters.

  1. Water Source: Various water sources such as rivers, lakes, canals, and wells can be used for drip irrigation. However, sources with excessive pollutants should be avoided to prevent system clogging and complexity in water purification.
  2. Main Control Hub: The main control hub of a drip irrigation system usually includes water pumps, power machinery, control valves, water purification devices, fertilization equipment, and measurement and protection devices.
  3. Pipeline Network: The pipeline network of a drip irrigation system generally consists of main pipes, branch pipes, and capillary tubes.
  4. Emitters: Emitters are installed on capillary tubes or connected via small tubes to the capillary tubes for irrigation.

Planning and Design of Drip Irrigation Systems:

When planning and designing drip irrigation systems, the area and plots should be surveyed first to collect relevant data such as geography, topography, soil properties, water source conditions, climatic conditions, types of fruit trees, planting spacings, and yields. Based on this information, the system layout is typically initially planned on topographic maps and then adjusted based on actual terrain conditions.

System Layout:

  1. Determination of Main Control Hub: The location of the main control hub is selected based on principles of cost-saving and ease of management, often in conjunction with hydraulic engineering projects.
  2. Placement of Capillary Tubes and Emitters: The arrangement of capillary tubes and emitters should be based on the planting spacings of fruit tree species. Common layouts include single-row straight capillary placement, single-row circular capillary placement, parallel placement of double-row capillaries, and single-row capillary placement with micro-tubes. Emitters are installed on capillary tubes.