Optimizing Drip Irrigation System for Fruit Trees

1. What is drip irrigation for fruit trees?

Drip irrigation of fruit trees is an irrigation method that uses emitters such as drippers, orifices or drip irrigation tapes installed on the capillary tubes of the irrigation system to drip water evenly and slowly into the soil near the root zone of fruit trees drop by drop.

2. What conditions are suitable for drip irrigation in orchards?

Drip irrigation is most suitable for orchards with water shortages and good water quality and management conditions.

3. What is a dripper? What kind of drippers are commonly used?

The dripper is a kind of drip irrigation device. After the pressure water flow in the capillary tube is energy-dissipated, it irrigates the soil with discontinuous water droplets. It is called a drip irrigation device, or dripper for short. The common lower-headed dripper is a pressure-compensated dripper.

The types of drippers include long channel drippers and orifice drippers. Microtube drippers are also called hair drippers. The inner diameter is 1.5 mm and can be inserted into the wall of the capillary tube. The advantage is that the cost is low, and the capillary pipe can be cut and installed sideways, which can improve the integrity of the capillary pipe and bury it underground. The management method is safe and can extend the service life of drip irrigation equipment. Orifice type dripper, the capillary tube is buried underground for fixed use. A conduit with an inner diameter of 7 mm is led out of the ground, and the orifice dripper is connected to the conduit.

4. How many drippers are needed for each fruit tree?

Generally, there are 3-8 drippers per fruit tree. Among them, fruit trees with large sandiness and large crowns should increase the number of drippers per plant, reduce irrigation quotas, and shorten the irrigation cycle; in orchards with clayey soil, deep soil layers, and small crowns, the number of drippers per plant can be appropriately reduced and irrigation should be increased. Quota and extend the irrigation cycle.

5. How much flow is required to develop an orchard per hectare?

Determine the scale of drip irrigation based on the water source and its water supply. It is usually appropriate to control 1 hectare of fruit trees with a water volume of 1.5-1.9m3 per hour.

6. How to specify the drip irrigation system?

The multi-year average total water demand of fruit trees from April to October is 510-620 mm. The peak period of water demand is from June to August. The peak water demand intensity is 3.5-4.2 mm per day. The average drip irrigation water supply is 19.5-25.5m3 per day, per hectare. The amount of dripping water is 75-150m3. Generally, irrigation is done 5-9 times a year, and the irrigation cycle is 3-7 days. The water flow rate of the dripper should not exceed 15 liters per hour. When used on the ground, it should not exceed 7 liters per hour, usually 2-6 liters per hour.

7. What is canalicular outflow irrigation?

The capillary tube of the micro-irrigation system leads to a conduit with an inner diameter of 4 mm, and the water flows out of the conduit to perform micro-irrigation on the root zone of the fruit trees, also known as spring irrigation. The conduit is located at 2/3 of the crown radius of each fruit tree. The height of the pipe is 0.3 meters from the ground.